有名なものをあげると、スポーツ（MLBチームはWhite SoxとCubs, NBAはMichael Jordanで有名なChicago Bullsなど）、音楽（Jazz & Blues）、美術・博物館(アメリカ３大美術館のシカゴ美術館)、建築（ダウンタウンの高層建築はシカゴ派として知られ、近代建築史においても重要）etc.
There’s about 15 punctuation marks commonly used in English: the period (.), comma (,), question mark (?), exclamation point (!), apostrophe/inverted comma (‘), dash (—), hyphen (-), colon (:), semi-colon (;), parentheses(( )), brackets ([ ]), bullet points (•), slash (/), and ellipses (…). If you extend this list to typography marks, you can also add the ampersand (&), at sign (@), number sign/pound/hashmark (#), asterisk/star (*), and underscore (_).
However, the full list of punctuation only begins there–in their lifetime, a regular English reader will occasionally encounter a number of other marks. However, they probably won’t be able to tell you their names, or maybe even their purpose. Case in point, these five fun punctuation marks with equally as fun names:
The pilcrow is most often seen in word processors and design programs to show where the ‘Enter’ key was hit to jump to the next line of text. However, it also has several other uses:
- Proofreaders and copyeditors write it to indicate where a new paragraph should begin
- Legal writers write it where a citation to an article, statute, law, or similar needs to be made
- Church programs use it to indicate when the congregation should stand, sit, or kneel
It also sounds like an awesome name for a comic book villain.
÷ or †(obelus)
Commonly known by most as the ‘division sign’, the obelus of the same name but a more dagger-type shape is also used by editors and proofreaders as a way to indicate a character is dead. It is also sometimes used to indicate a footnote.
The interrobang is for people who are too lazy/efficiency-minded to write out ?! or !? when wanting to expressed confused surprise. The mark was invented in the 1960s by an American ad man that wanted a symbol to indicate a rhetorical question in his company’s advertisements. After becoming somewhat fashionable in the 60s and 70s (even making its way onto some typewriter keys), the mark has all-but disappeared from use. However, it can still be found in some common computer fonts and there’s even an inverted version (or gnaborretni–interrobang backwards) for Spanish speakers: ⸘
☞ (index, manicule, or fist)
What looks like an overly-detailed emoji is actually a printing mark that dates back to the 12th century. Originally used in the margins of manuscripts to indicate corrections or notes, today it is mostly used in non-fiction to direct the reader to an especially important passage.
What most might call a diamond is actually the lozenge, which has many purposes other than just soothing a sore throat or writing about poker:
- To indicate the subtotal key on a calculator (~1960s)
- On public roads in the U.S. and Canada to mark a specific lane’s use (carpool, bicycles only, etc.)
- Math things that I don’t understand
And unrelated to writing/typography but still mildly interesting, the eponymous medicine earned its name because the first cough drops originally only came in the distinct shape.
With Halloween just around the corner and all the Amic schools decorated with pumpkins and ghosts, I’ve definitely had horror on the brain. There’s just something about this time of year that makes you want to grab a pumpkin spice latte, eat an apple cider doughnut, and watch something so scary you can’t sleep at night. I will admit that I’m a huge scaredy-cat; I usually end up watching horror movies with my ears plugged and my head buried in my lap! Lucky for those of us that can’t stand the suspense of a standard 175 minute slasher movie, there’s music videos! Yes, there have been music videos created that are so disturbing that MTV refused to air them (I’m looking at you, Mr. Bungle). The beauty of scary music videos is that they are small works of art in themselves; high quality production without the cheesy dialogue.
So without further ado, here are my top 5 scary music videos, in no particular order. Watch at your discretion.
Basement Jaxx- Where’s Your Head At
An aggressive chorus! Monkeys with human faces! Human science experiments! An attempted escape! Despite being nearly 18 years old, this music video fills me with dread to this day.
UNKLE- Rabbit in Your Headlight
After watching this video, I’m always left with so many questions and theories. My top theory is the man is actually an angel that’s gone mad witnessing brutality on Earth. ¯\_(ツ)_/¯
Radiohead- Burn the Witch
What starts off innocently enough in “Thomas the Tank Engine” land ends on a much darker note.
Aphex Twin- Come to Daddy
I think Aphex Twin may be the music video king of horror. The children wearing masks of Richard D. James’ face live in the uncanny valley. I just hope that dog is okay.
Maynard James Keenan makes some of the creepiest videos around. His mind is a dark place.
Thoroughly creeped out yet? What are some of your favorite scary movies or music videos?
- Meaning: Flee by running
- Example: The crowd had to run away from the burning structure with only the clothes on their backs.
- Meaning: Leave home
- Example: The little boy was unhappy about having to take a bath every day and decided to run away from home.
Run away with
- Meaning: Leave secretly with another person
- Example: She ran away with my best friend.
Run away with
- Meaning: Steal and get away with it
- Example: The robber ran away with some valuable paintings.
Run away with
- Meaning: Be misled
- Example: Don’t run away with the idea that this money will solve all your problems.
Run away with
- Meaning: Overwhelm, get the better of
- Example: He allowed his emotions to run away with him.
Run away with
- Meaning: Be superior or outstanding in something
- Example: Team USA ran away with the medal count.
- Meaning: Take someone home by car; to give someone a lift to their house
- Example: If you can wait a couple of minutes, I’ll run you back.
- Meaning: Rewind a film or cassette
- Example: Can you run it back to the beginning, please?
- Meaning: Inform someone briefly of the main points of an idea
- Example: Let me run that idea by the board before we spend too much time on it.
- Meaning: Briefly stop at a location for a particular purpose
- Example: Can you run by the store for milk?
RUN DOWN meaning – Phrasal verbs with RUN
- Meaning: Hit someone with a car or other vehicle and injure or kill them
- Example: He was run down while crossing the main road.
- Meaning: Criticize someone or an organisation, often unfairly
- Example: My sister is always running me down in front of my friends.
- Meaning: Find something or someone after searching for a long time
- Example: I finally managed to run down that report. I had filed it incorrectly.
- Meaning: Lose power slowly
- Example: If you don’t switch off the car lights, you will run the battery down.
- Meaning: Read quickly a list or other short text
- Example: Running down the list of suggestions, I can see three we can discard immediately.
- Meaning: Reduce the size or stock levels of a business, often with a view to closure
- Example: The board of directors have decided to run down the stocks held in storage prior to offering the company for sale.
Run for it
- Meaning: To run very quickly in order to escape from someone or something
- Example: As soon as he looked the other way, we ran for it.
My favorite film genre is probably the documentary. In particular, I like ones that introduce me to some sort of underground world or subculture I didn’t previously know about, or those that take some everyday thing I’ve never really thought about and explain its history.
I don’t watch them as often as I’d like, but here are some of the most memorable docs I’ve watched over the past few years:
A Map For Saturday (2007)
There was a time in my life when I was obsessed with the idea of quitting my job and going backpacking around the world by myself. Around that time, I watched A Map For A Saturday, an indie documentary that prepared me for the realities of long-term travel: the ups and downs of making new friends then having to say goodbye, the lack of a real sense of ‘home’, and the difficulties in navigating a place where you don’t speak the language. Having now done this type of trip, I appreciate the film even more as it paints an incredibly accurate picture of the backpacker lifestyle (and is a great way to relive it when it you can’t get back out on the road).
I love documentaries that seem to start down one road then take a completely unexpected turn down another. In Icarus, filmmaker Bryan Fogel enlists the help of Russian doctor Grigory Rodchenkov to try and win a challenging amateur cycling race by using undetectable performance-enhancing drugs. Shortly after, Rodchenkov reveals he was the mastermind of a state-sponsored doping program that allowed dirty Russian athletes to go undetected at the 2014 Sochi Olympics. From there, the film shifts from sports doc to geopolitical thriller as Rodchenkov spills the details of the scandal while trying to avoid being ‘silenced’ by the Russian government.
I Know That Voice (2012)
It’s basically 90 minutes of voice actors doing their characters’ voices on camera. For that reason alone, it’s awesome.
The Barkley Marathons: The Trail That Eats Its Young (2014)
There’s nothing like watching a movie about insanely fit people while you sit on your couch eating snacks. The Barkley Marathon is an invitation-only ultramarathon that consists of five 20-miles laps through the hilly and wooded Tennessee countryside, all in less than 60 hours. The race’s charm comes through its quirks: the race’s entry fee is $1.60, a personal essay, and a license plate from the runner’s home; the waypoints hidden along the course are old paperback books the competitors must tear the assigned page out of; and the run is initiated by race founder Gary Cantrell lighting a cigarette. The race is so difficult that in its 32-year history, only 18 runners have finished in time.
The Search for General Tso (2014)
In America, there’s probably not a town of decent size without at least one Chinese restaurant. The reason why I had never really thought about, but after watching this film I learned the interesting history of how Chinese food (well, the Americanized version) spread throughout America, the history of the fortune cookie, and why you’ll never find General Tso’s chicken served anywhere in China.
I usually troll the main page of Wikipedia to find inspiration for my weekly blog post. Today, I felt totally uninspired while clicking through articles. I’ve been working on a list of sad songs, because sometimes you just want to listen to a sad song and have a good cry. Sadness can be evoked by different things in different people, but some things are universally tragic: heartbreak, death, rejection, loss, loneliness, the list goes on and on. What I’ve noticed about my top favorite sad songs is that despite having an upbeat melody, the lyrics tug at the your heart in a way that only truly poignant words can.
Manu Chao- Dia Luna Dia Pena (“Moon Day Pain Day”)
Radiohead- How to Disappear Completely
No sad song list would be complete without a song from Radiohead.
Florence + The Machine – Ship to Wreck
Kings of Convenience- Toxic Girl
Scandinavian melancholy at its finest.
Sufjan Stevens – A Loverless Bed (Without Remission)
Of course, these all are open to interpretation. What makes me want to curl up in a ball and wail won’t necessarily make you feel the same way 😛 What is your favorite sad song?
- Meaning: Be very busy doing many different things
- Example: I’ve been running about all week getting everything ready for the holidays.
- Meaning: Cross by running
- Example: The police ran across the bridge to catch the criminal.
- Meaning: Find or discover by chance
- Example: While I was cleaning the kitchen cupboards, I ran across Mother’s recipe for Cornish game hens.
- Meaning: Chase
- Example: That dog will get hurt if he continues to run after cars.
- Meaning: Make a determined effort to win someone’s affections
- Example: She runs after any man in uniform!
- Meaning: Oppose, make difficulties.
- Example: Luck is really running against you tonight!
- Meaning: Leave; to make one’s way somewhere else
- Example: Well I must be running along now or I’ll be late for supper.
- Meaning: Be very busy doing many different things
- Example: I don’t want to run around all week getting everything ready for the holidays.
Run around after
- Meaning: Spend a lot of time doing things for another person or group of people
- Example: I have spent all morning running around after the kids.
My students always laugh when they learn how the names of popular Japanese media have been translated into English.
Some are extremely literal—the famous 1997 Studio Ghibli film, for example, is Mononoke-hime in Japanese and Princess Ehime in English. The names of most Dragon Ball characters in the English adaptation have stayed faithful to their Japanese origins, too: Kuririn is Krillin, Freeza is Frieza, Buruma is Bulma, Bejita is Vegeta, Torankusu is Trunks, and so on.
However, importers of other Japanese media have taken much more creative license with their naming; here’s a list of 10 Japanese media things and their English counterparts:
|Film||Hauru no Ugoku Shiro||Howl’s Moving Castle|
|Children’s show||Sūpā Sentai Shirīzu||Mighty Morphin’ Power Rangers|
|Game show||Fūun! Takeshi-jō||Most Extreme Elimination Challenge|
|Anime||Hagane no Renkinjutsushi||Fullmetal Alchemist|
|Film||Kaze Tachinu||The Wind Rises|
|Manga||Shingeki no Kyojin||Attack on Titan|
October is one of my favorite months, in my favorite season. The weather is finally getting cooler, delicious fall flavors are appearing on cafe menus, and it’s nearly time for my favorite holiday, Halloween. Right now I’m trying to decide on a fun new costume for our Halloween week celebrations. In previous years I’ve been a ghost, a horse, and a Star Wars character. What should I be this year? What would you like to see? I’d love to hear any suggestions or requests, and I’m looking forward to seeing everyone else’s costumes!